Shavuot and Matan Torah

Shavuot and Matan Torah

Rabbi Menachem Leibtag
Faculty, Midreshet Lindenbaum 

When the Torah wishes to inform us of the ‘historical’ reason for a holiday, it certainly knows how to do so. Take for example the two other pilgrimage holidays – “chag ha’matzot” & “succot”: Even though these holidays are also presented from their ‘agricultural’ perspective (see Shmot 23:14-17), the Torah  informs us of their historical perspectives as well (see Shmot 12:17, 13:3 etc. and Vayikra 23:42-43).

Therefore, it is simply baffling that the Torah presents Shavuot ONLY from its agricultural aspect, without mentioning even a word about its connection to events of MATAN TORAH! In this shiur, we attempt to understand why.


Before we begin our shiur, let’s verify our statement that Shavuot is presented solely from its agricultural perspective by quickly reviewing the five ‘parshiot’ in which it is mentioned:

  1. Shmot 23:15 = “v’et chag ha’KATZIR bikurei ma’asecha”
  1. Shmot 34:22 = “v’chag shavuot… bikurei KTZIR CHITIM”

III. Vayikra 23:15-21: “u’sfartem lachem…”

“And you shall count from the time you offer the OMER offering (from your first harvest/ see 23:10) seven weeks… and you shall offer a new MINCHA to God…”

  1. Bamidbar 28:26 = “u’v’yom ha’BIKURIM…”

“And on the day of the first fruit offering, when you bring a new MINCHA to God on Shavuot…”

  1. Devarim 16:9-12 = “…m’ha’chel chermesh b’kamah…”

“Count SEVEN weeks, starting when the sickle is first put to the standing grain, then you shall celebrate the holiday of SHAVUOT to God…”

As you review these five sources, note how in each instance Shavuot is presented solely as a harvest holiday, when we must thank God for our grain crops; while its connection MATAN TORAH is never mentioned – not even once!

However, when we study the above sources, it also becomes quite clear that there is ample reason to celebrate SHAVUOT, even without the events of MATAN TORAH. Considering that grain is man’s staple, it is only logical that we are commanded to celebrate its harvest together with God, in order to thank Him for His providence during this most critical time of the year.

Based on these sources, should we conclude that it is only coincidental that Shavuot falls out on the date of Matan Torah? Would that explain why Chumash makes no connection at all between that event and this holiday?

To answer this question, we must first take issue with our original assumption that the Biblical date of Matan Torah indeed coincides with the holiday of Shavuot.


When the Torah wishes to inform us of the precise date of a certain event, it certainly knows how to do so. Once again, take for example the events of Exodus.  Review Shmot 12:6,12-14,17-18 and 13:3-8, noting how the Torah informs us of the precise date (and even the time of day) when the Tenth Plague struck and when Bnei Yisrael left Egypt!  Later on, the Torah even records the precise date when Bnei Yisrael arrived at Midbar Sin (on the 15th of Iyar, see Shmot 16:1).

However, in regard to Matan Torah, the Torah is quite vague. Indeed we are told that Bnei Yisrael arrive at Har Sinai in the third month (Sivan), but we are not told on what DAY of the month they arrived:

“In the third month of Bnei Yisrael’s departure from the   Egypt, ON THIS DAY, they came to Midbar Sinai.” (19:1)

Not only is the phrase “on this day” ambiguous, it is quite difficult to determine how many days actually transpire between their arrival at Har Sinai and Matan Torah (see Shmot 19:3‑16).

Even if we assume that Bnei Yisrael arrived on the first day of the month (see Rashi 19:1-“b’yom hazeh”), the lack of a clear chronology in the subsequent events still makes it impossible to pinpoint that date.  Even though it is recorded how Moshe goes up and down the mountain several times, and that three days are required to prepare for that special occasion; we never told how many days elapse in the interim.

In the Mechilta (and in Mesechet Shabbat 86b), Chazal calculate that the Torah was given on either the sixth or seventh of Sivan (see also Rashi on 19:2->19), yet the fact remains that the Torah clearly prefers to obscure the precise date of this event.


However, there is an additional manner by which it is possible to calculate the approximate date of Ma’amad Har Sinai.  If we assume that tenth of Tishrei was chosen as ‘Yom Kippur’ specifically because it marks the date when Moshe descended from Har Sinai with the second “luchot” , then we can calculate ‘backwards’, using the three sets of ‘forty days’ that are described in the story of chet ha’egel in Devarim chapter 9.

Working ‘backwards’ from the tenth of TIshrei; we can arrive at the following approximate dates of these three sets of forty days:

The last forty days – from 1 Elul until 10 Tishrei.

The middle forty days – 19 Tamuz until 29 Av

The first forty days – from either 6 or 7 Sivan  until 17 Tamuz.


These calculations leads us to the conclusion that the Torah was given on either the 6th or 7th of Sivan (depending if the month of Sivan that year was 29 or thirty days).

However, even if all of the above assumptions are correct, the fact still remains that the Torah never explicitly mentions the date of Matan Torah, even though it has ample opportunities to do so!

Thus, we really have a double question. Not only is it strange that Torah makes no connection between Shavuot and Matan Torah, it doesn’t even tell us WHEN Matan Torah took place!

Again, the question remains – why?

To answer this question, we must consider a fundamental difference between the very nature of these two monumental events in our history: Yetziat Mitzraim and Matan Torah.


In the Torah, we find numerous mitzvot through which we commemorate Yetziat Mitzraim, both on the:

ANNIVERSARY of the Exodus:  e.g. eating matzah, telling of the story of Yetziat Mitzraim, korban Pesach etc.; and  ALL YEAR ROUND: e.g. “mitzvat bikkurim” (bringing the first fruits to Yerushalayim), tfillin, shabbat, and the daily recital of “kriyat shma”, etc., all of which the Torah relates to the Exodus (i.e. “zecher l’yitziat mitzrayim”).

In contrast, in Chumash we do not find even one specific mitzvah whose explicit purpose is to commemorate the events of Matan Torah.

Why does the Torah call upon us to commemorate these two events in such dramatically different ways?

One could suggest that by this manner of presentation, the Torah is sending a complex message.  Even though the Torah provides us ample information to calculate the approximate date of Ma’amad Har Sinai, its deliberate obfuscation of that date may suggest that we should not treat Matan Torah as a historically bound event.  Instead, from a certain perspective, each and every day one should feel as though the Torah has just been given.

This concept is reflected by the famous Midrash, quoted by Rashi on 19:1:

“… it should have been written: ‘ON THAT DAY’. Why does the pasuk say: ‘ON THIS DAY’? This comes to teach us that  the words of the Torah should be considered new to you – as  though they were given TODAY!” (see Rashi Shmot 19:1)

In other words, we should not view Matan Torah as a one time event. Rather, every generation must feel as though they have just entered into a covenant with God (see Devarim 5:1‑3).  Every generation must feel that God’s words were spoken to them no less than to earlier generations.  To celebrate the anniversary of Matan Torah as a single moment in our history could diminish from that meta-historical dimension.

Similarly, in our study of the Mishkan, we showed how the primary function of the Mishkan was to perpetuate the experience at Ma’amad Har Sinai.   From that source as well, it appears that the Torah would rather we treat Matan Torah as an event that needs to be perpetuated, more than commemorated.

In contrast to Matan Torah, the Exodus is not an event that must be re-lived. Rather it is an event that the Torah emphasizes over and over again that we must REMEMBER. Even if we must ACT as though we went out of Egypt on the seder night (See in the Hagada – “b’chol dor v’dor chayav adam lirot atzmo k’ilu…”), it is in order that we put ourselves in the proper frame of mind to praise God and thank Him for our redemption.

Yetziat Mitzrayim was, and should remain, a one time event in our history – our national birth. As such, it needs to be commemorated. Matan Torah is totally different! It is an event that must be constantly RE-LIVED, not just remembered, for it is the essence of our daily existence.

So is it wrong to commemorate Matan Torah on Shavuot? Did Chazal make a ‘mistake’ (chas v’shalom) by connecting a ‘purely agricultural’ holiday with the historical event of Matan Torah?

Of course not! Is it possible that the most important event in our national history not be commemorated on its yearly anniversary?!

In this regard, Chazal strike a beautiful balance between Torah “sh’bichtav” (the Written Law) and Torah “sh’baal peh” (the Oral Law). Chumash emphasizes one perspective, the inherent danger of commemorating this event, while tradition balances this message by emphasizing the other perspective, the historical significance of remembering that day, by re-living that event.

Therefore, Chazal instituted that just like on “leil ha’seder (Passover eve), when we spend the entire evening ‘re-telling‘ the story of Yetziat Mitzrayim, on “leil Shavuot”, we spend the entire evening engrossed in the study of Torah, ‘re-living‘ the experience of Ma’amad Har Sinai!


Even though the connection between Matan Torah and Shavuot is not explicit in Chumash, we do find several interesting ‘hints’ to their connection in Parshat Emor.


Recall how Parshat Emor is the primary source for the specific details of the special laws of Shavuot (see Vayikra 23:15‑21).  That parshia discusses the special offering of the “shtei ha’lechem” – two loaves of bread, baked as “chametz” from the new wheat harvest – offered at the conclusion of the 50 days of counting .

As the primary reason for this holiday is to thank God for our wheat harvest, it certainly makes sense for the Torah to command that we offer special korban from wheat.  However, together with this “shtei ha’lechem”, the Torah also instructs the “tzibur” (the community of Israel) to bring some additional sacrifices, including an olah, chatat, & shlamim.

Even though similar offerings are brought on every other holiday (see Bamidbar chapters 28 thru 29), Shavuot is unique for it is only time of the year when the “tzibur” offers a korban shlamim!

Let’s summarize these two unique laws regarding the “shtei ha’lechem” – the special korban of Shavuot.

1) It is the only korban ‘mincha’ offered by the tzibur    which is baked ‘chametz’ (all other flour offerings must be baked  ‘matzah’).

2) It is the only time during the entire year when the “tzibur” offers a korban SHLAMIM.

We will now explain how these two laws may relate to the fact that the agricultural holiday of Shavuot coincides with the time of year when Bnei Yisrael first received the Torah.


Matzah symbolizes the initial stage of a process, whereas the fully risen ‘chametz’ symbolizes its completion. Thus, the mitzvah to bake the shtei ha’lechem as ‘chametz’ may indicate that Matan Torah should be understood as the culmination of the redemption process which began with Yetziat Mitzrayim. Just as the “shtei ha’lechem’ marks the culmination of the wheat harvest, the staple of our physical existence – the historical process which began with the Exodus culminates with Matan Torah, the essence of our spiritual existence.

In this manner, the agricultural time of year of Shavuot alludes to an educational message that can help us appreciate the historical event that we commemorate.


As we noted above, Shavuot is the ONLY holiday when the “tzibur” must offer a korban SHLAMIM, i.e. the two kvasim which are offered with the SHTEI ha’LECHEM.

To appreciate why this is significant, we must uncover its Biblical precedent.

The FIRST instance where we find a korban SHLAMIM is at the end of Parshat Mishpatim (Shmot 24:4‑8) when the Torah describes the special covenantal ceremony that takes place at Ma’amad Har Sinai. At this ceremony, Bnei Yisrael proclaim “na’aseh v’nishma” while entering into a covenant to become God’s special nation by accepting the laws of Matan Torah.

That ceremony included the offering of special korbanot: OLOT and SHLAMIM (see Shmot 24:5). The blood from these korbanot, sprinkled both on the mizbayach and on the people, symbolized Bnei Yisrael’s entry into the covenant (24:6‑8).

Thus we find that the very first korban SHLAMIM is offered as a symbol of Bnei Yisrael’s acceptance of MATAN TORAH. Recall our explanation (see shiur on Parshat Vayikra) of how a SHLAMIM reflects a joint feast shared by covenantal partners. Therefore, the korban SHLAMIM, which is presented together with the SHTEI ha’LECHEM on Shavuot, may serve a symbolic reminder of MATAN TORAH.

In fact, we find two additional instances in Chumash when Bnei Yisrael offer a special collective SHLAMIM offering – and once again, both relate to Ma’amad Har Sinai:

  1. A) During the YOM ha’SHMINI ceremony (see Vayikra 9:1-5)
  2. B) On Har Eival, when the generation that enters the land re-enacts Ma’amad Har Sinai and studies its laws!

1) In many ways, “Yom ha’Shmini”- the day of the dedication ceremony of the Mishkan – can be considered as an extension of Ma’amad Har Sinai. Considering that God’s SHCHINA, which had left Bnei Yisrael in the aftermath of chet ha’egel, now returns to the Mishkan, and God begins once again to teach Bnei Yisrael itzvoth – now from the Ohel Moed instead of from Har Sinai – we can view this event as parallel to the day of MATAN TORAH.

Furthermore, this day marks the first time that God appears to Bnei Yisrael (see 9:4-5) since He appeared to them on the day when they first  proclaimed “na’aseh v’nishma” (see 24:9-11).

Once again, the korban SHLAMIM offered during this ceremony may reflect the re-establishment of the covenant of Har Sinai, which was broken due to chet ha’egel.

2) The purpose of the ceremony which God commands Bnei Yisrael to perform on Har Eival (to teach Bnei Yisrael the Torah and offer korbanot OLOT & SHLAMIM) is clearly to re-create the experience of MATAN TORAH for the new generation (for most of them were not present at the original event). Here once again, we find a thematic connection between the korban SHLAMIM and MATAN TORAH.

Therefore, it is only logical to assume that special korban SHLAMIM that the Torah obligates us to offer with the SHTEI ha’LECHEM on Shavuot alludes to the deeper thematic connection between SHAVUOT and MATAN TORAH.

If so, these Biblical ‘hints’ remind us that Shavuot remains as “ZMAN MATAN TORATEINU”, even according to Chumash.


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